Escape Sequences

The printf() and scanf() statements follow a combination of characters of characters called as escape sequences. Escape sequence are special characters starting with ‘\’ (backslash).They are used to break the normal sequence of a computer.

Notice that the characters \n were not printed on the screen. The backslash(\) is called an escape character.

Escape Sequence

\n →New line

\b →Backspace

\f →form feed

\’ →single quote

\\ →backslash

\0 →Null

\t →Horizontal Tab

\r →Carriage Return

\a →Alter(Bell)

\” →Double quote

\v →Vertical tab

\? →Question Mark

\000 →Octal number

\xhh →Hexadecimal number


The declaration of variable should be done in the declaration part of the program. The variable must be declared before they are used in the program. Declaration provide two things:

(1) Compiler obtains the variable name

(2) It tells the compiler about the data type of variable being declared and helps in allocating the memory.


Data_type variable_name;


int a,b;

char m;

float s;

double k;

The int, char, float, and double are keywords to represent data type. Commas separate the variable , if variable are more than one.

Data Type →Keyword

Character → char

Signed character → signed char

Unsigned character → unsigned char

Integer → int

Signed integer → signed int

unsigned integer →unsigned int

Floating point → float

Double Floating point → double

Extended double floating point → long double



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